Chang’e 4 is a Chinese lunar exploration mission that achieved the first soft landing on the far side of the Moon, on 3 January 2019.
An ancient collision event on the Moon left behind a very large crater, called the Aitken Basin, that is now about 13 km deep, and it is thought that the massive impactor likely exposed the deep lunar crust, and probably the mantle materials. If Chang’e 4 can find and study some of this material, it would get an unprecedented view into the Moon’s internal structure and origins.
The specific scientific objectives are:
- Measure the chemical compositions of lunar rocks and soils
- Measure lunar surface temperature over the duration of the mission.
- Carry out low-frequency radio astronomical observation and research using a radio telescope
- Study of cosmic rays
- Observe the solar corona, investigate its radiation characteristics and mechanism, and to explore the evolution and transport of coronal mass ejections (CME) between the Sun and Earth.